The word corruption is as old as the origin of men and woman in the society.
It is a common misbehaviour perculiar to all nations of the world. Transparency
International compiled perception index of most curruption to the least corrupt
nations of the world.
The Third World Countries depicted high preponderance of economic and
political corruption. The emerging democraries in South America, North,
sub-Saharan region of Africa, where the citizens earned less than $2.00/day, you
see their leaders looting their national treasuries and carting away huge
foreign exchange in billinons of dollars into foreign bank accounts in Europe,
America, and recently Asian Countries.
TYPES OF CORRUPTION:
Political corruption – the process where the legislative arm of the
government compromised their legislative position to acquire illicit gains for
Bribery – This is payment to the receipient to gain undue advantage or
circuvent the law. The police, customs, and agencies of government use this
method to earn illigal revenue for themselves.
Judicial Corruption – Judges deliver favourable judgement to the highest
payer of bribe to him or her.
Patronage/nepotism – Government positions are filled with mediocres,
incompetent and inept functionaries. Head of government depts. ministries,
government Corporations etc are occupied by professionally incompetent
Electoral Fraud – involved election personnels falsifying the result of the
election. The head of election board discounts actual voting results and
substitue inflated figure to the favoured candidate against while the opposing
candidates figure is deflated. Actual votes are discarded for the electoral
officers’ fictitious figure(election result).
Embezzlement – Top government functionaries like ministers, permanent
secretaries, Directors etc It not uncommon to hear cases where the minister
stole fund meant to make capital purchases like buying aircraft for the Country
being siphone away by Minister of Civil Aviation Ministry. Funds meant for Road
constructions are paid out without the Construction work being carry out. Funds
to build/maintain schools buildings are paid out to phony contractors who share
the funds with government functionaries in charge of the project.
Kick backs – It is a common practice for functionaries in charge of projects
to award contract without regard to the rules and procedure, moral and ethics of
their profession. Contracts are awarded without regard for proficient
performance as required under the laid down procedure. The rules were thrown to
Organized Crimes – The leaders in Countries that endowed with rich natural
resource like oil, gold, etc tend to embezzle revenue derived from sale or
export of these resources. In Country like Nigeria, the leaders deep their hand
directly into foreign reserve of the nation to award frivulous major contracts
to cronies and personal supporters without regard to the laid down procedure for
such contract award. Such contracts are never executed while funds are disbursed
to the recipients.
The phenomenon and magnitude of
corruption in the unclassified rogue States is one of the major causes of